FREE SHIPPING ON ORDERS OVER $69
s




general sensitive skin

Skin Care Ingredient Glossary

SHARE

The research team at Riversol compiled this comprehensive ingredient glossary to demystify the ingredients listed in common products. Each ingredient below is described with its benefit in skincare / cosmetics, as well as where it is derived from.

Please don't hesitate to contact us if there is an ingredient you would like to see investigated: info@riversol.com

Hinokitiol (Beta-Thujaplicin)
An extract of the Pacific Red Cedar tree, it has a wide range of biological benefits. Among these are potent oxidation, anti-pigmentation and anti-melanogenic effects. It has also been proven to be an anti-inflammatory and natural antibiotic. All of Riversol’s skin care products contain this powerful yet gentle ingredient.

Beta-Thujaplicin has been intensely studied for decades. More than 120 peer-reviewed scientific articles exist on its biological effects and numerous properties of benefit for cosmetics and personal care products.

Disodium Lauriminodipropionate Tocopheryl Phosphates (DTLP)
A bio-functional form of Vitamin E that clinically reduces redness and discomfort from several skin conditions, including UV-induced redness, sensitive skin from shaving, and acne lesions. DTLP also prevents and treats inflammation and dryness. 

While DTLP is effective if applied to an irritated area, it’s even more effective when applied before acne, rosacea, or other irritants appear on the skin. 

L-Ascorbic Acid
A form of Vitamin C that has anti-oxidant properties, it helps reduce the appearance of brown spots and other sun damage, helps boost healthy collagen production, increases the effectiveness of sunscreens, and helps protect skin against UV exposure. 

L-Ascorbic Acid is the most researched form of vitamin C as it relates to skin benefits. Many skin care products boast vitamin C derivatives (such as magnesium ascorbyl phosphate or ascorbyl palmitate), but L-ascorbic acid is the only clinically proven form of vitamin C in skin care products.

Tocopherol Acetate, Tocopheryl Phosphate
Two forms of vitamin E, an antioxidant that protects body tissue from damage caused by unstable substances called free radicals. Free radicals can harm cells, tissues, organs, and are believed to play a role in certain conditions associated with aging.

Studies have shown Vitamin E has a myriad of skin care benefits: UV protection, increased moisture content in the skin, reduced sunburn damage, prevention of melanin deposits, potent anti-inflammatory properties,increased hair growth, and improved stability of cosmetics.

Allantoin
A botanical extract, derived from the comfrey plant, Allantoin is a naturally soothing, anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory skin protectant. It increases the water content and provides structural support to cells, and is an important part of connective tissue. Allantoin also increases the smoothness of the skin; promotes cell replication; and promotes the healing of wounds, burns, and scars.

Chrysin
An organic flavonoid derived mainly from the passion flowers. Chrysin stimulates the enzyme that detoxifies metabolites and environmental chemicals. Together with N-Hydroxysuccinimide, a ketone that activates the elimination of blood pigments, these ingredients combine to reduce dark circles under the eyes.

It can also be used to promote hair growth when added to a hair serum or similar product.

Dipeptide-2
peptide composed of two amino acids (valine and tryptophan) with skin conditioning properties. It is believed to increase lymphatic circulation in the skin, thereby reducing under-eye puffiness.

Because of its amino acid structure, it's considered to be a Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF). As an NMF, it helps keep the intercellular structure of the epidermis intact, facilitates the skin’s healing process, prevents dermal irritation and may even regenerate the skin.

Micelles
The key components in micellar water are called "micelles". These dual-ended molecules are attracted to water on one end (the hydrophilic "head"), while the other end is attracted to the grease, oils, and make-up on your face (the surfactant "tail"). When applying micellar water to a cotton pad or a microfibre cloth, the hydrophilic head is attracted to the hydrophilic fibres of the cloth or cotton. This leaves the surfactant side sticking up, ready to attract any oils and dirt, and make-up.

This molecular arrangement means that micellar water is more efficient, effective, and gentle than traditional make-up removers or soaps.

Sea Kelp
Sea kelp is large, brown algae you may have brushed up against while swimming in the ocean. Among kelp's many health benefits when ingested, it is a mineral and nutrient dense anti-inflammatory and antioxidant for the skin.Furthermore, kelp is also a moisturizer as its high mineral content can reduce the impact of temperature changes and exposure to nature’s elements.

Butylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol
These compounds have been shown to extract and re tain moisture from the air. Skin care products containing these compounds are less prone to drying out, and are more resistant to high humidity.

Butylene Glycol has been exhaustively studied and approved by The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR), the FDA, and the World Health Organization. Riversol only uses glycols derived from plants. 

Glycerin
Also called glycerol, it acts as a moisturizer and is present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. Glycerin is used in many cosmetics and toiletries because it improves the consistency of creams and lotions. It helps to reduce the scaling associated with dry skin and improves the skin’s barrier function. Riversol only uses glycerin derived from plants.

Glyceryl Stearate
Derived from coconuts, this agent acts as a lubricant on the skin's surface, which gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance. It also slows the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin's surface. 

It acts as a non-ionic opacifier, thickener, emollient and formulation stabilizer. It also contributes to the feeling of skin softness and smoothness.

Hesperidin Methyl Chalcone
An anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory that both reduces dark circles from under the eyes, as well as skin redness. It’s naturally derived from citrus fruits and evening primrose. 

The skin under the eyes is much thinner than other parts of the face and body. HMC strengthens the capillary walls and lowers blood flow through those areas, so the skin loses its bluish-black hue. HMC also reduces skin redness by calming inflammation and reducing capillary permeability, which is what causes high skin colouration. 

Mineral Oil
Mineral Oil is a clear, odourless oil widely used in cosmetics because of its hypoallergenic properties and its inability to solidify and clog pores. While mineral oil is derived from naturally-occurring petroleum, cosmetics- and pharmaceutical-grade mineral oil shares almost no properties with petroleum.

Exhaustive clinical studies have proven the safety of cosmetics-grade mineral oil. Mineral oil is also proven to be effective in wound healing, and is among the most effective moisturizing ingredients available.     

N-Hydroxysuccinimide
This is a ketone that helps eliminate blood originated pigments that cause dark colour and inflammation under the eyes. 

Infra-orbital shadows are caused by hemoglobin and its coloured degradation products like bilverdin, bilirubin and iron. These collect in the dermis and epidermis under the eye. N-H makes the iron in these compounds soluble for natural elimination.

Palmitoyl Oligopeptide
An ingredient in skin care products that enhances the body’s natural production of collagen and hyaluronic acid. Collagen helps make skin plumper and more firm, while hyaluronic acid promotes cell growth and speeds healing. 

When Palmitoyl Oligopeptide-based creams are applied regularly, research shows skin becomes smoother, lines and wrinkles are diminished, and the skin thickens. It even aids in reducing darkness under the eyes and is often used in many anti-aging skincare products.

Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4
A compound developed for the purpose of skin rejuvenation and claimed to be effective against wrinkles, Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 is also proven to have no skin irritation. Most studies showed some improvement in objective and subjective measures of wrinkles. 

Structurally, it is related to collagen type 1. Preliminary studies show that Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 stimulated the synthesis of the key constituents of the skin: collagen, elastin and glucosamnoglycans. 

Petrolatum
A natural hydrocarbon that is added to cosmetics and skin care products. Topical application can help the skin’s outer layer recover from damage, reduce inflammation, and generally heal the skin.

There is a lot of misinformation about Petrolatum, but here are the facts: Cosmetics-grade Petrolatum has been proven to not be a cancer-causing agent. The meme that Petrolatum causes premature aging has also been proven false under clinical testing.

Petrolatum rests on top of the skin, forming a water-repelling film. This makes it a great moisturizer. However, Petrolatum is not a good solvent for delivering other products deep into the skin.

Propylene Glycol
Derived from vegetable sugars, this compound helps retain moisture when used in cosmetics. It can also be used as a preservative due to its anti-fungal and anti-microbial properties. 

Contrary to some online misinformation, Propylene Glycol is only harmful to human skin at concentrations near 100%. But at the minute amounts used in cosmetics, studies have shown no health risk at all.

Propylene Glycol Alginate
Extracted from sea algae, it has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Because of its gelatin-like consistency, it’s used as a thickening agent, emollient, or anti-oxidant. 

Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 60, Polysorbate 80
When mixed with glycerin, these fatty acids are used as surfactant, cleansing agents. These fatty acids are natural components of skin and are components of a complex mixture that make up the outermost layer of the skin and protect the body against oxidative damage. Riversol only uses polysorbates derived from corn

Sodium C 14-16 Sulfonate
A gentle cleansing and foaming agent naturally derived from coconut oil. Sodium C 14-16 Sulfonate and Sodium laureth sulfate (SNES) has a long history of safe use in many cosmetic products. 

An internet hoax in the 90s tried to create a link between SLES and cancer. That connection has been studied and debunked by several major news and scientific review bodies. At much, much higher concentration, SNES is a potential skin irritant. But at the level used in cosmetics, it has been studied and shown to be safe.  

Titanium Dioxide
Inert earth mineral that is known to protect skin from UVA and UVB radiation and is considered to have no risk of skin irritation. Often used as a thickening, whitening, lubrication and sunscreen ingredient in cosmetics.  Because of its gentleness, titanium dioxide is a good suncreen choice for use on sensitive or rosacea-affected skin. Although titanium dioxide is a natural ingredient, in nature it is usually adulterated with lead and iron. It is purified via synthetic processes for use in our products. 

Titanium oxide and zinc oxide are both highly effective broad-spectrum SPF ingredients, and are both widely used in sun protection products around the world. 

Benzophenone-4
Also known as Oxybenzone, Benzophenone-4 is a compound commonly used to protect the active ingredients of a skincare or cosmetics product against ultraviolet light, and helps to slow the degradation of the product as well. 

Carbomer (acrylic acid)
A gelling agent used to thicken and stabilize cosmetic formulations, they can be found in a wide variety of product types including skin, hair, nail and makeup products. In our products, the carbomers are used to distribute and suspend our key molecule beta-thuljaplicin in the formulations.

Cyclomethicone and Dimethiconol
Naturally derived from sand, these silicas have fluid properties that make them feel like silk on the skin. These compounds don’t have moisturizing properties of their own – instead, they function as a carrying agent for other ingredients contained in a product. They’re very useful at quickly delivering nutrients to the skin and hair then evaporating into the air.

Parabens
Parabens are naturally produced by many fruits and vegetables as a defense against microbes. In cosmetics, synthetic versions of parabens are used to prevent growth of bacteria and fungi. 

Parabens used in both cosmetics and foods are supported by Health Canada and the FDA, and are considered GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe).

PEG-100 Stearate
Made by combining natural oils (palm or coconut) with Stearic Acid, it’s primarily used as an emollient, emulsifier and moisturizer. Although PEG Stearates can also clean the skin and air by helping water to mix with oil and dirt to rinse them away.

Despite online rumours, PEG-10 Stearate has been CIR and FDA studied and approve as safe for use in cosmetics.

Phenoxyethanol
Used as a stabilizer in perfumes and as a preservative, Phenoxyethanol offers a broad spectrum of anti-bacterial activity against bacterias, moulds and yeasts.

The CIR approves phenoxyethanol for its use as a preservative because of its ability to kill bacteria and stabilize formulas, extending their shelf life and making them safer for use. Contrary to much online misinformation, it does not release formaldehyde.

PVM/MA Decadine Cross Polymer
A synthetic polymer used as a film-forming and thickening agent, it works best to create gels because of its viscosity controlling properties.

Sodium Hydroxide
A highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to modulate or adjust the pH of a product. Historically used in the formulation of soaps, it’s now used in a wide variety of products, including cosmetics and skin care products.

Special Denatured Alcohol
Derived from ethyl alcohol, and used in very low concentration as a solvent and antibacterial agent.  When it’s mixed with other ingredients, the drying effects of the alcohol are counteracted. When used in very low concentration, it is not considered a skin irritant.

Stearic Acid
Derived from coconuts, it is a saturated, fatty acid that works as an emollient to help keep other ingredients intact in a formulation. These substances have a soft to hard, wax-like texture to a creamy, emollient feel that can be highly lubricating.

Steareth-20
Plant-derived in Riversol products, Steareth-20 is added to cosmetics and personal care products because it works as a gentle cleansing agent, a surfactant and an emulsifier. 

In skin care products surfactants work to degrease and emulsify oils and fats, and suspend oil, allowing them to be washed away. An emulsifier is needed for products that contain both water and oil components, to ensure they don’t separate over time.

Tetrasodium EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetra-acetic Acid) 
A binding agent commonly used in cosmetic products to stop the minerals in certain formulations from bonding to other ingredients. 

Water
Water is often listed first in the ingredients because it accounts for the bulk of most skincare products. Water hydrates the skin and lets other ingredients to be dissolved within it. Water-based products require preservatives to lessen the chance of bacterial or fungal overgrowth.

Xanthan Gum
Xanthan Gum is derived from glucose or corn syrup and is a plant-based ingredient used in cosmetic products. It can have many uses, including binder, emulsion stabilizer, skin-conditioning agent, surfactant, or viscosity increasing agent. 

Citric Acid
Naturally found in citric fruits, citric acid has a number of uses in personal care products. In anti-aging products, it promotes skin peeling and re-growth, helping eliminate fine lines, wrinkles, scars and areas of skin discolouration. By removing the dead cells that can clog pores, it can also be beneficial for people with acne or enlarged pores. 

In its raw state, citric acid is often used to adjust the pH of skin care products. It is also important for ensuring the desired colour results for many hair dyes.

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
Derived from coconut oil and glycerin, it’s considered an excellent emollient and skin repairing ingredient due to its mix of fatty acids which helps repair the skin’s surface and resist moisture loss. It can also be used as a thickener, but its chief function is to moisturize and replenish skin. It is also considered non-sensitizing.

It also has outstanding stability and resistance to oxidation. In fact, it has an almost indefinite shelf life. 

Caprylyl Glycol
Caprylyl glycol is an alcohol derived from caprylic acid—a natural fatty acid found in the milk of some mammals, as well as palm and coconut oils. Ours is synthetically made, but 100% nature-identical.

Caprylyl glycol is an effective conditioner and moisturizer that also helps increase the shelf life of a product by increasing the antimicrobial activity of other preservatives. It has also been CIR-studied and approved as safe for cosmetic skin care. 

Sorbic Acid
A preservative derived from mountain ash berries or manufactured synthetically. Studies show that sorbic acid is especially effective for sufferers of eczema over other preservatives.

Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter)
A plant lipid extracted from the karate tree, it’s commonly used as an emollient in cosmetics, partly due to it being a rich source of antioxidants. 

Shea butter is a gentle and effective moisturizer. It contains oleic acid, a saturated fatty acid which is highly compatible with the sebum naturally produced by human skin. This makes Shea Butter readily absorbed and is said to help the absorption of other active ingredients. 

Cyclopentasiloxane
Comprised of silicas naturally derived from sand, it’s mainly used as a conditioner, delivery agent, lubricant and solvent. It gives a silky and slippery feeling when applied to the skin and hair. It also acts as a mild water-binding agent that holds up well, even when the skin becomes wet. In other forms, it’s used for wound healing and improving the appearance of scars. 

It’s believed that cyclopentasiloxane may have some ability to remove wrinkles, skin blemishes or stubborn effects of rosacea. This chemical is also an excellent lubricant that sufficiently stretches water layers on the surface of the skin.

Cyclomethicone
Derived from the natural elements silicon and oxygen, Cyclomethicone is a general term describing both individual and/or a mixture of cyclic siloxane materials that have many uses and are found in many cosmetic products. 

There are many reasons why cyclomethicone is an effective additive to lotions and creams. One, its molecules are too big to enter human pores, thus leaving the product on the surface of the skin, creating a softer and smoother skin texture. Also, cyclomethicone molecules don’t tend to block the active ingredients from entering the skin, because they tend to leave significant amounts of space in between each other.

Dimethiconol
A silicone polymer used as a skin and hair-conditioning agent. In skin care, its unique fluidity makes it effective as a conditioning agent. It’s known for creating a subtle gloss that feels smooth and silky to the touch. It also helps to fill in wrinkles on the face, giving skin a temporary ‘plump’ appearance. In hair products, these same conditioning properties make dimethiconol a popular ingredient in conditioners and leave-in serums. It is also used in hair cuticle coats due to its ability to help with split-ends. 

The CIR Expert Panel and EWG have both concluded this ingredient is safe for use in cosmetics.

Aminopropyl ascorbyl phosphates
This derivative of Vitamin C is found in many skin care products like serums, lotions, eye creams and skin lightening products. Studies show many anti-aging benefits like building collagen, healing inflammation, cell renewal, defending the skin against free radicals, skin whitening, and reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. 

It is also known for reducing melanin production, the cause of age spots, Melasma and hyper-pigmentation. 

Cetearyl Alcohol
Derived from coconut oil, it is a white, waxy substance that is used in cosmetics to help prevent creams from separating oil into liquid i.e. an emulsifier. It can also be used to increase a product’s ability to foam, or to make a product thicker. 

Glycolic Acid
An alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) derived from sugar cane, Glycolic acid stimulates exfoliation and cell regeneration, leaving skin looking smoother, younger and healthier. Effectively, this safe and effective chemical exfoliant removes the dead skin cells from the outer layer of the epidermis. This allows brighter, healthier cells to rise to the surface of the skin more quickly.

Dicetyl Phosphate
Made from a mix of cetyl alcohol and phosphoric acid, Dicetyl Phosphate shares similar properties with other phosphates used in cosmetics and skin care products. It functions as a surfactant and emulsifier.

Sodium citrate
Sodium citrate acts as a buffering agent in many cosmetics products to control their pH level. It also has antioxidant and preservative properties. 

Citric acid is one of a group of ingredients known as alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) that are used in chemical skin peels. Products containing citric acid can be safely formulated for sensitive skin or use near the eye area. 

Cyclotetrasiloxane
Similar to other silicones, it has excellent spreading properties and gives skin and hair a silky, slippery feeling. Because of that it’s often used as a conditioner, delivery agent, solvent and lubricant. 

It is also used in skincare products to fill in fine lines and wrinkles, and to give the face a temporary ‘plump’ look. 

Tocopheryl acetate
A form of vitamin E, Tocopheryl Acetate is a natural skin-conditioning agent and antioxidant. It has been shown to strengthen the skin’s barrier function, reduce skin water loss, and protect the skin’s lipid balance. It also enhances the function of sunscreen ingredients, reduces harm from exposure to UV rays, and promotes the skin’s natural healing process. 

Cocamidopropyl Betaine
A surfactant which can be derived from a range of different oils, it helps water wash away the oil and dirt from your skin. Some surfactants are harsher on skin than others, but Cocamidopropyl Betaine typically doesn’t cause irritation. 

It is also used in many cleansers because of its thickening and foaming properties, which help moisturize the skin.

Hydroxyethylcellulose
A plant-derived amino acid widely used as an emulsifier, preservative and thickener due to its thickening properties and water solubility. While it is not beneficial to the skin itself, it is a widely used ingredient in many skincare predicts because of many properties. 

Sodium Lactate Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer 
Used as an emulsion stabilizer because of its ability to increase viscosity of a product and to form a film when applied topically to the skin. This polymer contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups, allowing it bind to both water and oil, making it useful in combining two phases to create a single smooth consistency. 

PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil 
Commonly used in many skincare products because of its wide variety of useful properties, it can be used to reduce inflammation, skin infections, and acne. It also works as a natural humectant, pulling moisture from the air and trapping it close to the skin’s tissues. Castor oil also helps pull excess dirt from the epidermis.

Castor is rich in oleic and linoleic acid, making it a popular choice for softening and smoothing a dry, parched skin. The triglycerides in castor oil help to restore the skin’s natural moisture balance, making it a perfect ingredient for dry skin conditions. It’s also low on the comedogenic scale, so it won’t congest or annoy sensitive skin.

Ceteth-20 Phosphate
Often used as an emollient and emulsifier in conjunction with other alcohols and fatty acids, it works to thicken solutions and help other ingredients dissolve in a solvent. This ingredient is one of the most common emollients used in cosmetics, and it can be found in products such as hair dye, facial moisturizer, conditioner, cleanser, acne treatment, anti-aging treatment, sunscreen, exfoliants, and depilatory cream.

Retinol
Retinol is an anti-aging molecule that accelerates skin-renewal and reduces wrinkles, lines, and age spots. Retinoids reduce fine lines and wrinkles by increasing the production of collagen. They also stimulate the production of new blood vessels in the skin, which improves skin color. Additional benefits include fading age spots and softening rough patches of skin. However, it takes three to six months of regular use before improvements in wrinkles are apparent—and the best results take six to 12 months.

Tranexamic Acid 
The latest development in skin brightening, dark spot, and acne scar reducing research.

Tranexamic acid has been shown in numerous peer-reviewed studies to lighten the appearance of dark spots and visibly even skin tone across a variety of skin types.

In clinical trials, this ingredient has shown to visibly reduce acne scars in a matter of weeks.

In recent years, this powerful compound has been used in the treatment of melasma and UV induced pigmentation (sun damage and age spots) often showing significant improvements in patient outcome, better than prescription alternatives, and without the side effects.

Peptide
Peptides are a type of protein. When collagen breaks down, short segments of amino acids are formed. These are the tiny proteins and active molecules known as peptides. Peptides in skin care can provide significant anti-aging benefits.

Tetrapeptide-30 
Tetrapeptide-30 is a kind of peptide that is also known as "The brightener", this synthetic molecule has been engineered to prevent future pigmentation. While Tetrapeptdide-30 has the ability to visibly reduce hyperpigmentation on its own, it's primary function in the Corrector is to inhibit the mechanism that causes new dark spots from appearing.This peptide is the perfect complement to corrective ingredients like Tranexamic acid, offering a preventative element in the corrective formulation.

Shea butter
Shea butter is a popular ingredient often used in skincare. It works to keep the skin hydrated by forming a barrier on the skin's surface to lessen water loss while reducing the appearance of rough, dry patches of skin. Shea butter has been proven to have extensive anti-inflammatory properties. Redness and swelling on your face may be calmed by applying shea butter products. 

Sun filters: Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide 
Sun filters are antimicrobial, noncomedogenic molecules that reflect UVA and UVB rays away from the skin to prevent sun exposure and photoaging without clogging pores.

Vitamin E
Vitamin E is an antioxidant, fat-soluble vitamin that maintains the skin-cell integrity and prevents cell damage. Research tells us that Vitamin E can only suppress a limited number of free radicals before it runs out of electrons to donate, therefore, it is often combined with Vitamin C to allow for sustained and long lasting antioxidant protection.

Vitamin C
Vitamin C is an antioxidant that slows the rate of free-radical damage and plays a vital role in skin repair and regeneration. Normally, Vitamin C in a topical solution rapidly degrades when exposed to oxygen. Vitagen, Vitamin C in phosphate form, providing stability and sustained effectiveness of its antioxidant properties.

Antioxidants 
Antioxidants are naturally occurring vitamins and minerals—like vitamins A, C, E, and green tea—that protect your skin against free radicals. Free radicals are compounds that can cause harm if their levels become too high in your body. They’re linked to multiple illnesses, including diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.

Jojoba oil
The jojoba plant is a hearty, perennial plant that grows in North America. Not only does it thrive in the harsh, desert climates that could kill most living things, but it also produces a nut with many healing properties.The nut of the jojoba plant can be made into an oil. Jojoba oil is gentle enough to be used as a carrier oil to mix with other essential oils. You can also use it on its own. Many people use jojoba oil as part of their skin care routine as there is plenty of evidence supporting the use of pure jojoba oil as a remedy for acne, dry skin, and countless other skin conditions.

Coconut oil
Coconut oil is a highly saturated oil that is traditionally made by extracting the oil from raw coconuts or dried coconut kernels that has been touted for its health-promoting properties.The medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil have antimicrobial properties that can help protect against harmful microorganisms.

This is especially important for skin health, as many types of skin infections, including acne, cellulitis, folliculitis and athlete's foot, are caused by bacteria or fungi. Applying coconut oil directly to the skin may prevent the growth of these microorganisms.

Buriti oil
Oil from the buriti fruit is an amazing natural product from the Amazon rainforest. The plant has been used for many years but only recently has it become recognised worldwide for its major health benefits. Buriti oil for skin has many benefits, the main ones being accumulated from its cooling, soothing and reviving properties. This helps to keep your skin relaxed and refreshed. As well as these factors, buriti oil is rich in nutrients meaning it can heal and give your skin the mineral it needs. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant found in the oil which can help protect the skin and improve any premature ageing. It gives your skin some life and promotes healthier looking skin from the inside out.

Bakuchiol
Bakuchiol is an ingredient derived from the psoralea corylifolia plant, it is an anti-inflammatory and natural alternative to retinol, and is all the rage in the skin care world, due to its amazing abilities to reduce the appearance of fine lines and give that youthful glow to your face. Like retinol, studies suggest that bakuchiol helps prevent fine lines and wrinkles, improves pigmentation, and boosts elasticity and firmness.

References

  1. Microbiology Immunology https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31106894
  2. Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:10447
  3. PubChem https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/3611
  4. Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis https://europepmc.org/abstract/cba/269244
  5. PubChem https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/71587785
  6. Chemical Communications https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2010/cc/b917705a
  7. Dermatologic Surgery https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1524-4725.2001.00264.x
  8. Advances in Food Nutrition Research https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29477225
  9. PubChem https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/alpha-Tocopherol-acetate
  10. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-20247/allantoin-topical/details
  11. U.S. National Library of Medicine - PubChem https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Allantoin
  12. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf200931t
  13. National Center for Biotechnology Information https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3962099/
  14. National Center for Biotechnology Information https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1489603/
  15. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24305430
  16. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:3MTKK9ukS6MJ:https://www.medicaljournals.se/acta/content_files/download.php%3Fdoi%3D10.1080/000155599750208040+&cd=11&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca&client=safari
  17. Kinetic Studies of Some Esters and Amides in Precence of Micelles http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/3938/8/08_chapter%202.pdf
  18. PubMed https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=sea+kelp+in+skin+care
  19. Acta Dermato-venereologica https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/1675525
  20. Journal of Bacteriology https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20342016
  21. Acta Dermato-venereologica https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/7906448
  22. Journal of Dermatological Science https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0923181198000504
  23. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-20275/glycerin-topical/details
  24. http://www.academia.edu/download/32435049/Journalnya.pdf
  25. Special Chem https://cosmetics.specialchem.com/inci/glyceryl-stearate
  26. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiological Sciences https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2016/pp/c5pp00467e
  27. Chemico-Biological Interactions https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009279715000174
  28. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1011134415001141
  29. Google Patents https://patents.google.com/patent/US5558872A/en
  30. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/g00/drugs/2/drug-32605/mineral-oil-topical/details?i10c.ua=1&i10c.encReferrer=&i10c.dv=18
  31. Journal of the American Chemical Society https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01063a037
  32. Journal of the American Chemical Society https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00902a047
  33. The Derm Review https://thedermreview.com/palmitoyl-oligopeptide/
  34. Google Patents https://patents.google.com/patent/US8815814B2/en
  35. Archives of Dermatological Research https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00403-017-1731-6
  36. International Journal of Cosmetic Science https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1468-2494.2009.00490.x
  37. Experimental Dermatology https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2012.01528.x
  38. MDPI https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9284/4/2/16/pdf
  39. Journal of The European Academy of Dermatology and Venerology https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1046/j.0926-9959.2001.00002.x
  40. Contact Dermatitis: Environmental and Occupational Dermatitis https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1034/j.1600-0536.2003.00119.x
  41. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-425/petrolatum-topical/details
  42. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-18485/propylene-glycol-bulk/details
  43. PubChem https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Propylene-glycol
  44. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-64291/propylene-glycol-glycerin-topical/details
  45. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-64291/propylene-glycol-glycerin-topical/details
  46. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-5784/polysorbate-20-bulk/details
  47. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-12479/polysorbate-60/details
  48. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-20319/polysorbate-80/details
  49. International Journal of Toxicology https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/109158189801700504
  50. Radiology and Oncology https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3423755/
  51. Chemical Reviews https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cr0500535
  52. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/56396
  53. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190962209005398
  54. Contact Dermatitis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17295691
  55. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-162397/lip-protective-with-sunscreen-benzophenone-topical/details/list-sideeffects
  56. Pharmaceutical Research https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B:PHAM.0000033006.11619.07
  57. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-18474/carbomer/details
  58. The Derm Review https://thedermreview.com/dimethiconol/
  59. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-156888/cyclomethicone/details
  60. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-18321/dimethicone-topical/details
  61. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/children/features/personal-care-products
  62. Medscape https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/508430_1
  63. FDA https://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/cosmetic-ingredients/parabens-cosmetics
  64. Dermatology https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/251072
  65. British Journal of Dermatology https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1976.tb04379.x
  66. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-163343/peg-100-stearate-glyceryl-monostearate-bulk/details
  67. The Derm Review https://thedermreview.com/steareth-20/
  68. Contact Dermatitis: Environmental and Occupational Dermatitis https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1991.tb01794.x
  69. Acta Dermato-Venereologica https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/21381401
  70. Google Patents https://patents.google.com/patent/US6117419A/en
  71. WebMD http://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-159269/gel-base-no-72-bulk-topical/details/list-contraindications
  72. Google Patents https://patents.google.com/patent/US6433024B1/en
  73. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-162681/sodium-hydroxide-bulk/details
  74. Cosmetics Info https://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/sodium-hydroxide
  75. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-14713/alcohol-denatured/details
  76. The Derm Review https://thedermreview.com/alcohol-denat/
  77. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-14391/stearic-acid/details
  78. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-64136/lactic-acid-topical/details
  79. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1032/edta
  80. Google Patents https://patents.google.com/patent/US5549888A/en
  81. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/beauty/skin-care-basics
  82. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/diet/features/6-reasons-to-drink-water
  83. WebMd https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-340/xanthan-gum
  84. Cosmetics Info https://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/xanthan-gum
  85. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-76993/benzethonium-cl-citric-acid-topical/details
  86. Healthline https://www.healthline.com/health/caprylic-capric-triglyceride
  87. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1465/caprylic-acid
  88. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-64291/propylene-glycol-glycerin-topical/details
  89. Cosmetics & Toiletries https://www.agrar.it/upload/documenti/STABIL-article-Cosmetic-&-Toiletries-08-2013.pdf
  90. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-8259/sorbic-acid-bulk/details
  91. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0190962286700273
  92. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1512/shea-butter
  93. British Journal of Dermatology https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1996.tb07604.x
  94. Shea Butter: The Nourishing Properties of Africa's Best-Kept Natural Beauty https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=6iQjwr9v84gC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=shea+butter+skin&ots=AOFqFJDyXq&sig=GLOio3E1T0DkOyUQUfzoXZTPaU0
  95. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-165484/clioquinol-hydrocortisone-emollient-comb-no-88-topical/details/list-contraindications
  96. International Journal of Toxicology https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1091581811428184
  97. Applied Surface Science https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433210010147
  98. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-156888/cyclomethicone/details
  99. The Derm Review https://thedermreview.com/cyclomethicone/
  100. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-18321/dimethicone-topical/details
  101. Truth in Aging https://www.truthinaging.com/ingredients/aminopropyl-ascorbyl-phosphates
  102. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-32603/cetyl-alcohol-topical/details
  103. Healthline https://www.healthline.com/health/cetearyl-alcohol#uses
  104. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-18073/glycolic-acid-topical/details
  105. Biomaterials https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961208004535
  106. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-159860/cetostearyl-alcohol-ceteareth20-bulk/details
  107. Encyclopaedia Britannica https://www.britannica.com/science/surfactant
  108. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-11502/sodium-phosphates-oral/details
  109. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3556082/
  110. Special Chem https://cosmetics.specialchem.com/inci/sodium-citrate
  111. Cosmetics Info https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/sodium-citrate
  112. International Journal of Toxicology https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1091581811428184
  113. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-954/vitamin-e
  114. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7472802
  115. Encyclopaedia Britannica https://www.britannica.com/science/surfactant
  116. Cosmetics Info https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/cocamidopropyl-betaine-0
  117. Journal of Surfactants and Detergents https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11743-998-0025-3
  118. International Journal of Toxicology https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22247236
  119. MiMi https://en.mimi.hu/beauty/hydroxyethyl_cellulose.html
  120. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-76210/artificial-tears-hydroxyethylcellulose/details
  121. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-6217/sodium-lactate-intravenous/details
  122. The Derm Review https://thedermreview.com/sodium-lactate/
  123. Amended Safety Assessment of PEGylated Oils as Used in Cosmetics https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/pegoil122012final_faa-final%20for%20posting.pdf
  124. The Derm Review https://thedermreview.com/peg-40-hydrogenated-castor-oil/
  125. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-159860/cetostearyl-alcohol-ceteareth20-bulk/details
  126. Cosmetics Info https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/ceteth-10
  127. Archive of Dermatology https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamadermatology/article-abstract/412795
  128. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/beauty/retinoid-gel-and-cream-treatments
  129. Harvard Health Publishing https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/do-retinoids-really-reduce-wrinkles
  130. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-32677-1331/tranexamic-acid-oral/tranexamic-acid-650-milligram-tablet-oral/details
  131. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/tranexamic-acid-oral-route/description/drg-20073517
  132. Journal of The European Academy of Dermatology and Venerology https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2012.04464.x
  133. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1107/casein-peptides
  134. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/beauty/features/top-6-antiaging-breakthroughs
  135. International Journal of Cosmetic Science http://www.beauty-review.nl/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Biologically-active-peptides-from-a-laboratory-bench-curiosity-to-a-functional-skin-care-product.pdf
  136. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1512/shea-butter
  137. ResearchGate https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Dr_Ashish_Baldi/publication/235944029_Herbal_Cosmetics_Used_for_Skin_and_Hair/links/09e4151497b76aa3c5000000/Herbal-Cosmetics-Used-for-Skin-and-Hair.pdf
  138. PubChem https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Glycolic-acid
  139. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-7102/zinc-oxide-topical/details
  140. Clinics in Dermatology https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0738081X08000151
  141. Journal of The European Academy of Dermatology and Venerology https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.0926-9959.2001.00002.x
  142. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-954/vitamin-e
  143. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-vitamin-e/art-20364144
  144. Riversol https://www.riversol.com/pages/vitamin-e-and-photoprotection?_pos=2&_sid=8bbec7340&_ss=r
  145. National Institutes of Health https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/
  146. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1001/vitamin-c-ascorbic-acid
  147. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-vitamin-c/art-20363932
  148. Riversol https://www.riversol.com/pages/vitamin-c-and-skin-health?_pos=2&_sid=686671891&_ss=r
  149. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/antioxidants-your-immune-system-super-foods-optimal-health
  150. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/ss/slideshow-all-about-antioxidants
  151. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-618/jojoba
  152. Pigment & Resin Technology https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/03699420410512077
  153. Healthline https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/coconut-oil-and-skin#section2
  154. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1092/coconut-oil
  155. The Idle Man https://theidleman.com/blogs/grooming/buriti-oil-benefits
  156. ScieELO http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-86502017001100956
  157. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society https://aocs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1007/s11746-009-1400-9
  158. WebMD https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-166755/sulfacetamide-sodium-bakuchiol-topical/details